mitomycin is given soon after intradermal infection (before the onset of clinical illness), an attack may be aborted fully. Immunity does not develop, agglutinins fail to appear, and such subjects are prone to further infection. This phenomenon is of little practical significance, as patients are usually encountered after about a week of incubated disease. Partial to complete resistance to infection follows such antigenic stimulation. Control Measures. General. In infected areas, those measures designed to repel ticks, mosquitoes, or deer should be employed. Gloves should be used for handling all potentially infected animals, particularly rabbits, and animals to be consumed should be cooked thoroughly.
Laboratory workers exposed to infected aerosols should exercise care by wearing suitable masks and utilizing other protective devices. Vaccination. The available killed vaccines afford only partial protection to men against tularemia. Viable attenuated preparations have been used with considerable success in the Soviet Union. The vaccine is administered intradermally – and provokes a reaction similar in severity to that following smallpox immunization. Significant protection has been demonstrated in volunteers in the United States vaccinated with a similar viable product and who subsequently were exposed to virulent strains of F. tularensis by the respiratory or cutaneous routes.
In those subjects who have developed the clinical illness after immunization, the disease has been mild. Foshay, L.: Tularemia. Annex. 3facrobiol., 4:313, 1950. McCrumb, F. R.: Aerosol inf:=%ion of a man with Pasteurella Tula-lenses. Back. Rev., 25:264 1961. Meyer, K. F.: Pasteurella and Francisella. In Dubos, R., and Hirsch, J. G. (eds.): Bacterial and Mycotic Infections of Man. 4th ed. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1965, Chap. 27, p. 659.
DISEASES CAUSED BY MALLEOMYCES Leighton E. Chuff
Definition. Glanders, or farcy, is an infectious disease of horses, Mules, and donkeys caused by Malleomyces mallei. The infection is occasionally transmitted to man and is characterized by an acute fulminant febrile illness or a chronic indolent disease with abscesses of the respiratory tract or skin. Farcy refers to the nodular abscesses observed in skin, lymphatics, and subcutaneou§ tissues. Etiology. Glanders was described by Aristotle about 330 B.C., and the occurrence of the disease in horses was observed by Apeyrtos about 375 A.D.
Royer's (1837) monograph on glanders in man re-mains the classic description of the disease. It is a gram-negative bacillus cul-table aerobically on ordinary nutrient media. It is variously called Malleomyces mallei, Bacillus mallei, or Pfeiferella mallei. M. mallei are nonmotile. It elaborates a specific antigen (mullein) upon lysis that is used as a skin test material for diag-. nostic purposes. The bacillus is antigenically separable from M. pseudomallei, which causes melioidosis. mallei produce a brown pigment resembling that of Pseudomonas aeru-Ginoza. It has been reported from all parts of the world. It has been eradicated in the United States and the United Kingdom, but may still occur in Asia and South America. Epidemiology.
Glanders is a communicable dis-ease among horses, and it may occur sporadically in other animal species in contact with horses. The two principal features of glanders are (1) nasal cellulitis and necrosis-producing septal perforation, palatal and pharyngeal ulceration; or (2) cutaneous cellulitis, vesiculation, and ulceration at the site of Pulmonary involvement are common in glanders, producing pneumonia, abscesses, pleural effusion, and empyema.