This Bipolar Staining Is Best Demonstrated with Giemsa
This bipolar staining is best demonstrated with Memsahib or Watson's stain and maybe conspicuous in lymph node aspirates and sputum of infected human beings. pistes may survive for several weeks in dry flea feces and human sputum and maybe kept' viable and virulent in the frozen state for months. Al-though streptomycin-resistant Giemsa mutants have been encountered in experimental plague infections, all naturally occurring human strains of P. During the next 50 years, the plague spread widely into Asia and Europe and it has been estimated that 100 million people perished at that time.
M Europe and the Middle East but also in China and India. The pneumonic plague was prominent in this pandemic, which, for unclear reasons, became known as the “Black Death.” In Europe alone, 25 million, or one-fourth of the population, succumbed. The spread of the plague resulted in the establishment of numerous widely distributed permanent foci among rodent populations. During recent years, a human plague has occurred in China, Vietnam, Burma, Indonesia, India, Iran, the Malagasy Republic, Central, and South Africa, the United States, and several countries of South America.
By contrast, plague pneumonia secondary to bacteremia may initiate a series of direct transmissions to susceptible contacts in whom the disease
Giemsa is manifest by fulminant primary pneumonia_ Primary pneumonic plague may spread among a susceptible human population with alarming rapidity. lymphatics leading to regional nodes are grossly normal. There is characteristic gelatinous edema of contiguous connective tissue and dilatation of small blood vessels.